The navigation bar on the right
shows a few of the cultivars on the garlic varieties
pages sorted into their major groupings. They include
many heirloom and heritage garlics. The hardneck varieties
are Porcelain, Rocambole, Purple Stripe, Marbled Purple
Stripe and Glazed Purple Stripe. The other garlics are
three varieties of weakly bolting hardnecks and two
varieties of softnecks.
|Garlic beds in early May
Garlic originated in the wild
in Central Asia and has more than 5000 years of history
as an important horticultural crop. Since under normal
circumstances garlic does not produce true seed, there
is no cross fertilization of cultivated varieties. It
is hard to say how many genetically different garlic
clones there actually are under cultivation today. Garlic
is extremely adaptable and after a few years in a particular
locality it will take on a shape, size, colour and flavour
characteristic of its new location. So it is difficult
to tell when differences between garlic plants are environmental
and when they are genetic.
Researchers are now working to restore the fertility
of garlic. Dr. Rina Kamenetsky is one of these researchers
and we are delighted to be able to feature her article
Seeds in Garlic on our website.
Variety is a term that is used loosely. Sometimes it
is used colloquially to refer to each named cultivar
and sometimes it is used technically to refer to the
major groupings. Although the term is used both ways
on this website, on this page it is being used to attempt
botanically correct classification.
Hardneck and Softneck Garlic
True garlic (species:
Allium sativum) has two subspecies, softneck
(sativum) and hardneck (ophioscorodon
– ophios for short). Allium sativum
sativum has two varieties, Silverskin and
Artichoke. Softneck garlics can be planted mechanically
and so the garlics found in supermarkets are
almost all softnecks.
Our understanding of the structure of the garlic
family tree is evolving as mapping the genes
of the varieties and subvarieties continues.
Previously there were thought to be five major
groupings referred to as varieties. Hardnecks
were classified as Porcelain, Rocambole and
Purple Stripe (with the subvarieties Marbled
Purple Stripe and Glazed Purple Stripe), and
softnecks were classified as Artichokes (with
the subvarieties Creole, Asiatic and Turban).
Currently there are considered to be ten varieties,
eight ophios and two softnecks. The ophios (Allium
sativum ophioscorodon) include five true
hardneck varieties (Porcelain,
Stripe and Glazed
Purple Stripe) and three weakly bolting
hardnecks that often produce softnecks (Creole,
Asiatic and Turban).
The true hardneck varieties do well in the
cooler Canadian climates. Hardneck refers to
the scape, or flower stalk, with its topset
of bulbils. Hardnecks take a little more care
to grow because they need to be hand planted
right side up, and to have their scapes snipped
off. They repay that effort with a wealth of
large bulbs and a dazzling choice of robust
and subtle, intriguing and delicious flavours.
has been gleaned from Bob Anderson’s
overview of the garlic family tree. His
article gives more information on the varieties
of garlic and the ongoing research.
An Artichoke softneck garlic
A Purple Stripe hardneck garlic
Seed Garlic Varieties in 2014
After offering the new strains of garlic we got from Al Picketts for several years we are now consolidating our stocks of garlic. We are concentrating on the cultivars that do well on our garlic farm.
We have increased the amount of Porcelains that we grow as Porcelains are in high demand at the moment – with good reason. They are easy to grow and sell anywhere in Canada.
We are also placing emphasis on the Marbled Purple Stripes as we find many of them to be excellent commercial garlics. They size up like Porcelains and generally have a couple more cloves per bulb which makes them more economical for planting. Kostyn's Red Russian, Khabar and Wenger's Russian are outstanding garlics, producing large, vigorous bulbs with good strong flavours. Linda Olesky behaves like these others but has a very mild flavour, easy to eat raw, making it a good complement to the hotter garlics.
Help Making Your Selection
If you find the selection of garlics bewildering allow
us to make some suggestions.
We consider the Porcelain
variety to be the hardiest and recommend it for novices
in cold climates. Leningrad, Music, Northern Quebec
and Susan Delafield are very popular with backyard
gardeners and commercial growers alike.
Next we would recommend Marbled Purple Stripes. They have more plantable cloves per bulb than Porcelains and seem to thrive under a wide variety of conditions. We particularly recommend Kostyn's Red Russian, Khabar and Wenger's Russian as well as the milder Linda Olesky.
All the other
true hardneck varieties - Purple
Stripe, Glazed Purple Stripe
and Rocambole are also good choices anywhere in Canada.
The standard Purple Stripes, Chesnok Red and Persian
Star, are popular with growers because you get more
plantable cloves per bulb; these garlics like hot summers to size up well. Glazed Purple
Stripes have fragile wrappers which makes the
timing of harvest critical.
more fussy about watering than the other varieties;
they do not tolerate overwatering well. If that is
not a problem where you are we recommend getting some
because of their outstanding flavour. The ones we find are doing best where we are are Aliah,
French Rocambole, German Red, Salt Spring Select and Spicy Korean Red. They are all rich in flavour.
In cold climates we recommend winter mulch for insurance
against damage caused by alternate freezing and thawing
which may tear away the tender new roots.
If your climate is moderate
you may be able to grow the weakly bolting hardnecks
and softnecks more easily than we can in our zone
4. In addition to a selection of hardnecks recommended
for hardiness you can choose from the other garlics
There is great diversity in the three varieties of
weak bolting hardnecks and we are keeping a selection of each. We also have several cultivars from the lager, Artichoke,
softneck variety and a couple of small softnecks that keep well and are braidable.
If left on the plant to mature the topset or scape
of a hardneck garlic will produce a number of bulbils
which can be planted. This is a way of rapidly increasing
your garlic planting stock. For details see our
Garlic Bulbils page. We recommend you use this approach to refresh or expand your planting stock.